In 1989 armed resistance to Indian
rule began in the Kashmir valley. Muslim political parties complained
that the 1987 elections to the state's legislative assembly
were rigged against them, and they formed militant wings.
Some groups demanded independence for the state of Jammu and
Kashmir and others union with Pakistan.
Pakistan gave its "moral and diplomatic" support to
the movement, calling for the issue to be resolved via a UN-sponsored
But the government of India maintained that Pakistan's support
of the insurgency consisted of training and supplying weapons
to militant separatists and repeatedly called for Pakistan to
cease "cross-border terrorism".
During the 1990s, several new militant
groups emerged, most of which held radical Islamic views.
The ideological emphasis of the movement shifted from a nationalistic
and secularist one to an Islamic one.
This was in part driven by the arrival in the valley of Kashmir
of large numbers of Islamic "Jihadi" fighters who
had fought in Afghanistan against the Soviet Union in the 1980s.
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